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cement, concrete & Aggregates

tube sampler for packaged cement

Sampling

variable flow type air permeability apparatus

Fineness

vic apparatus with dashpot confirming

Consistency

slump test apparatus

Consistency & Workability

le chatelier mould conforming

Soundness

tensile strength tester hand operated

Tensile & Flexural Strength

cube mould 100mm bs1881

Moulding Equipment

Beam Moulds

cylindrical mould 150mm

Cyindrical Moulds

portable compression testing machines hand operated

Compression Testing Machines

manhole cover testing machine digital

Manhole Cover Testing Machine

longitudinal compressometer 150mm dia

Equipment for Strain Measurement

Air Entrainment Meter

cement mortar and concrete permeability apparatus 100mm

Permeability

thickness gauge is2386

Aggregates Testing

remote controlled jacks with lock nut

Hydraulic Jacks

Standard Test Sieves

Cement Testing: A Comprehensive Guide

To guarantee the stability and durability of structures, cement testing is essential. Testing procedures can be a time and cost saver for cement contractors. This guide will help you learn about what is cement testing and everything you need to know about it.

What Is Cement Testing Lab Equipment?

Cement testing laboratories are necessary for reliable quality and performance in building cement. The cement testing machine that evaluates cement’s durability can also determine its chemical makeup, setting time, and consistency. Equipment for measuring specific gravity density, Vicat times, and compressive strengths is widely available. Le Chatelier measures durability, while the Blaine air permeability test evaluates smoothness. The autoclave can also test the cement’s resistance to steam expansion under high pressure. These tools facilitate in-depth analysis, leading to cement that stands the test of time.

What do you need to know about cement?

Cement is the most common building raw-material displaying high level of compressive strength. Cement is commonly mixed with aggregate, additives like waterproofing compounds, and water in the right proportion to prepare the exact material to be used for moulding of building blocks and slabs. The aggregates consist of sand and gravel which are also tested prior to adding to cement. Due to its weakness in tensile strength, reinforcements are commonly used within the building blocks during the moulding/setting of cement concrete. The reinforcement materials are made in the shape of steel bars commonly called TMT. HEICO range of products include almost all the Cement testing equipment generally used in the laboratories of construction organizations, including solutions for cement, concrete, and steel-bars.

Compression Testing

The most commonly used test equipment for cement concrete is Compression testing machine or CTM or Cement testing machine, as it is widely known. These are available in various forms like manually-operated, analog, digital, or fully automatic machines.  The fully automatic CTMs come with facility to program the test based on the standard being followed. These machines involve the use of sturdy hydraulic power packs, and control systems and computer based control programs and interfaces for retrieving the results.

Besides compression, the building blocks are subject to flexural loading also and therefore require to be tested for flexural loading. Attachments for flexural test are optionally available to add to the basic compression testing machines.

How Samples are Prepared?

The sample preparation in this category involves the use of moulds for cubes (for compressive testing) and beams (for flexural testing). Cube moulds are allowed a curing time of about 22 days before testing. HEICO cube moulds are manufactured strictly according to standards so that results can be correlated. Cement concrete when tested under load, displays complex behaviours of straining and the same needs to be captured precisely with gauges. HEICO CTMs are available with a variety of optional accessories to match the needs of customers.

TMT reinforcement bars are generally tested for tension and flexure loading. HEICO Universal Servo Hydraulic testing machines are extensively used for this application.

The other common testing instruments used in such laboratories are: Consistency test, permeability, slump test, curing, strain measurement, manhole-cover testing, aggregates testing, jacks, sieves, shakers, etc.

Apart from the destructive testing, cement concrete tests are also carried out with Non-Destructive  techniques (NDT) like the ultrasonic  rock pulse velocity test, radiography test, etc. on constructed beams and slabs.

Cement concrete testing is generally carried out regularly at building sites

HEICO also offers customized equipment based on customer specific requirements and needs of Cement testing equipment suppliers.

How to Do Cement Tests

The building industry’s go-to material is cement. The glue keeps the sand and gravel in the concrete from sliding around. There are many theories on how to test cement quality in a laboratory, but most call for extremely large equipment.

Here are some easy, no-equipment tests you can do on the spot to determine the cement’s quality. As part of these preliminary tests, we will examine the properties of cement that impact the cement’s strength and quality.

  • Date of Packing (MFG Date): Cement loses its initial strength as time passes. Storage of cement for longer than three months requires retesting per IS Specifications.
  • Colour of Cement: Concrete should be a consistent shade. Cement should ideally be a greenish-grey colour. The colour of cement reveals whether or not it contains too much clay or lime.
  • Check for lumps: The presence of water causes the cement to lump. When cement comes into contact with water vapour in the air, a chemical reaction occurs known as hydration. Water is the primary enemy of cement.
  • Rubbing Test: If you take a small amount of cement and rub it between your fingers, it should feel smooth. You can tell if cement has sand in it by its roughness.
  • Float test of cement: Throwing a handful of cement into water is a good way to test its quality; the cement should sink rather than float.
  • Hand insertion: Put your hand inside the bag of cement. It makes you feel chill. Because of this, we can conclude that the cement bag did not undergo a hydration reaction.
  • Shape test of cement: Cement, or hydraulic cement, gets its other name because it hardens in wet conditions. Make a thick paste by mixing 100 grammes of cement with water. Then, arrange a cement cake with pointed corners on a glass plate. Put this plate completely under the water in the pail. Remember that you don’t want the shape to change as it settles. High-quality cement needs to harden in water.
  • Strength test:  Create a cement cube measuring 25 mm by 25 mm by 200 mm in length. Put the block completely underwater for a week. Load the submerged block with 340 N by setting it on supports 15000 mm apart. If the cement used to make the block is high quality, it shouldn’t crack or break.
  • Specific Gravity of Cement: Determining its specific gravity is crucial if cement is stored for over three months. Specific gravity (Sg) for high-quality cement should be between 3.1 and 3.6g/cc.

 

Different Types of Cement Testing

Tests on cement samples to determine their properties are common. Standardised tests:

  • Fineness Test: Measurement of particle distribution predicts cement strength and setting time.

 

  • Compressive Strength Test: Compression resistance indicates cement durability.

 

  • Setting Time Test: Testing cement setting and hardening times are crucial for suitability.

 

  • Soundness Test: The cement’s chemical reaction-resistant expansion and cracking indicate its durability.

 

  • Heat of Hydration Test: The cement setting and hardening heat test determine cracking potential.

 

  • Chloride Content Test: Cement suits saltwater or corrosive environments based on chloride content.

 

  • Accelerated Carbonation Test: This test measures how quickly carbon dioxide reacts with calcium hydroxide in concrete, called cement carbonation. This test evaluates concrete’s chemical resistance and test conditions.

 

The Importance of Testing Cement Before Construction

The cement quality significantly impacts how long your house will last. Using a specific variety of cement can help you save money while erecting a superior structure. The cement you select, however, must be carefully considered to ensure it will serve your purposes. Discuss the cement testing results with your engineer, and then make a cement selection.

Advantages of Cement Testing

Cement is the best material for building a house, but low-quality concrete is useless. Cement testing technicians perform a series of tests to ensure the mixture meets the code. High-quality cement lasts longer, strengthens structures, and pours easier, simplifying your job. Cement Testing is necessary to benefit from concrete houses fully. High-quality concrete has these benefits:

Increased Power:

Superior concrete mixes with higher aggregate percentages save money on water and cement paste. It strengthens and prolongs the mixture with minimal shrinkage. The best and safest option is to use high-quality concrete, which hardens in place and rarely breaks.

Reliability:

When you put money into high-quality concrete, you get the building you envisioned in the time frame you set. Only assume the quality of concrete is satisfactory if you bought it from a reputable source. Whether or not you build a concrete home, concrete is an essential building material. Take the one that passed the technician’s rigorous Testing.

Reduce potential harm:

Poor quality concrete takes longer to set and costs more to maintain in the long run. Investing in concrete quality testing in Edmonton can help you avoid these kinds of expenses and ensure that your concrete will be cured properly.

Leveling/setting:

Poor-quality concrete has trouble setting up in high-heat environments, so it’s not a good idea to use it there. The poor quality low-grade concrete mix takes more time at the setting and can be tough to level, portraying a poor finish look.

Cement Test Methods and Testing Equipment

Penetration Method 

If you need to measure how far into a concrete slab you can drill, look no further than the Windsor Probe, a powder-operated gun with a hardened probe and depth gauge. This is one of the cement testing methods, a non-destructive way to get precise readings.

Rebound Hammer Method 

This surface hardness tester uses a spring-controlled hammer to evaluate the rebound distance. Rebound hammer testing is reliable for measuring concrete’s surface hardness and overall durability.

Pull Out Test Method:

The pull-out test involves pulling a specially shaped steel rod pre-cast into concrete. It is a non-destructive method of calculating the bond strength of the concrete.

Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Echo Technology:

These techniques use the velocity of ultrasonic pulses to detect holes, cracks, and spalls in concrete. By analysing the echoes, pulse velocity and pulse echo technologies shed light on the state of the concrete.

Radar Wave Technology: 

Using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), it is possible to detect rebar and other objects at various depths within concrete. It is a concrete assessment step by providing a comprehensive view of the internal structure.

Carbonation Testing: 

Corrosion of rebar due to carbonation is a possibility. Phenolphthalein solution is used in a carbonation test to reveal how far along a beverage’s carbonation process is. If it is there, the concrete will turn pink. The test involves breaking off concrete or drilling a hole for immediate solution application.

Half-Cell Potential Testing: 

The half-cell potential test detects corrosion by measuring the electrical resistance between the concrete and the rebar. It’s useful because it gives you more information about the state of the steel reinforcements than carbonation tests do.

Concrete Sounding: 

Sounding, or hammer testing is a technique for detecting delamination in concrete. Good concrete has a resonant sound, while delaminated or unbonded concrete has a dull or ‘thud’ sound.

Here are some of the main cement testing equipment:

  • Flexure Testing Machine Hand Operated

 

  • Longitudinal Exten Someter

 

  • DLC Vibrating Hammer for Concrete Moulds

 

  • L – Shape Box Apparatus

 

  • Concrete Flow Table Test Set

 

  • Hand Operated Compression Testing Machine

 

  • Concrete Beam Mould

 

  • V Funnel Apparatus

 

  • Concrete Curing Tank

 

  • J – Ring Apparatus

 

  • Lateral Extensometer For Concrete

 

How to Choose the Right Equipment for Cement Testing

Appreciating the stiffness and capacity of the frame:

Engineers create structures based on the concrete’s compressive strength. When picking out cement testing lab equipment for the cement testing lab, following the recommendations in the ACI 363 report on high-strength concrete is crucial and adhering to the guidelines outlined in the ASTM C39. Longevity, safety, and consistent specimen loading benefit a rigid load frame.

Sample knowledge and strength requirements

The largest possible concrete strength this machine can measure is directly proportional to the size of the specimen tested. Considerations such as compatibility, strength, size, features, and test type are critical because they determine the machine’s usefulness.

Data Collection

After completing the tests, it is essential to understand and analyse the results. If you want to maximise your productivity, you need to be able to make sense of the test results data.

Add accessories for more flexibility

After knowing the specs, you can choose accessories to improve the concrete compression machine. Equipment add-ons include locking stems, upper platens, masonry block prisms, etc.

Pick the Device That Suits Your Needs

Select the strongest and most effective machine after doing your research.

Conclusion

Heicoin’s testing cement through a cement testing procedure is a complicated procedure that guarantees the strength, stability, and safety of a concrete building. Considering the results of tests for fineness, setting times, compressive strength, and soundness provides a comprehensive picture of cement properties. Carbonation testing, radar wave technology, and ultrasonic pulse velocity improve structural integrity assessments. Engineers and quality control specialists can use these tests in the cement testing laboratory to make well-informed decisions, boosting concrete structures’ durability, dependability, and performance.