What Are Different Types of Hydraulic Machines?

A machine that uses liquid to convert energy is called hydraulic machine. These machines are defined as devices used to convert a fluid’s energy into mechanical energy. They can also be used to convert mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. Several types of hydraulic machinery are intended for numerous applications.

The hydraulic system works based on the principle of pressurized fluid forcing mechanical action. One of these systems installed in a machine is called a “hydraulic circuit”. These circuits are made up of a pump to compress the fluid, lines to carry it, a cylinder where the liquid is pumped and a piston moved by it under pressure in the cylinder. The hydraulic system can also drive shafts for hydraulic motors and conveyor belts.

Hydraulic systems are built from five essential components. Pumps move hydraulic fluid and create pressure. They convert mechanical force into hydraulic force. Valves direct the flow of hydraulic fluid and change its pressure. Actuators, such as hydraulic pistons and motors, convert hydraulic force into mechanical force. Reservoirs store hydraulic fluid. Filters clean it.

Types of hydraulic systems

There are two basic types of hydraulic systems. Open-centre systems return hydraulic fluid to the reservoir when the system is in neutral. Closed-centre ones stop the flow of hydraulic fluid when the system is neutral. These systems are more flexible and efficient and work faster than open-centre systems.


The most common hydraulic machines are turbines and pumps, compressors or fans, positive displacement machines, and rotodynamic machines.


Each type of hydraulic machine can be classified into one of two existing categories: conversion of the direction of energy or principle of operation. Turbines, pumps, and fans are classified as hydraulic power direction conversion machines. Positive displacement hydraulics and rotodynamics are classified as principles of operation.


A machine that converts mechanical energy into a flow of fluids is called a pump. Turbines convert the energy of the fluids into the energy of a rotating shaft. Compressors convert mechanical energy to increase a fluid’s potential energy by increasing its pressure. Fans are used to improve the kinetic energy of fluids. 

Positive displacement machines carry liquids found in low-pressure areas into chambers. When the chamber inlet closes, the outlet opens, and the fluid volume is reduced and expelled. Rotational machines pass fluids through rotating components; In turbines, the rotating component is called a rotor.

Also Read:Is Your Hydraulic Machine Efficient?

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Some hydraulic machines are “radial flow” or “axial flow”, depending on the direction fluids travel as they pass a rotor. In the case of radial flow turbines, the fluid moves towards the center of the rotor. In the case of pumps and compressors, the fluids move towards the center of the rotor. Radial flow machines are called “inward flow machines”, and axial flow machines are called “outward flow machines.”


Positive displacement machines suffer almost no decrease in fluids during the energy transfer process. They can generate high pressures in their compact designs. Hydraulic machines work smoothly and continuously but can be easily damaged if the discharge valves close abruptly. These pumps are typically used for high-flow, low-discharge applications. Hydraulic machine in India offers the best quality products at a wide range.


There are many specific uses for hydraulic systems. The dams, pipes and channels are the specific uses of the different hydraulic systems. So are pumps, turbines, propellers, and the Archimedean screw. Hydraulic presses, cranes, and hydraulic car lifts are some of the more well-known machines that use such systems.