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Computerised Universal Testing Machine

How Does a Computerized Universal Testing Machine Work?

The primary purpose of a Computerized Universal Testing Machine


A universal testing machine is used to examine the compressive and tensile stress of materials. Commonly referred to as UTMs, these machines are also used to test different other mechanical properties of a material, such as shear and flexural properties. 


This handy multi-purpose machine is usually found in the quality control department of an organization or in the Research and Development labs.


The working process of this complex piece of machine is quite complex, though it may look pretty simple apparently. Mechanical force is applied on the specimen to be tested and the response is measured. 


There are different parameters set beforehand and the measurements are then tallied to determine whether or not the specimen passes the test.


To understand the working principle and operation of the computerized universal testing machines, you will need to have a better and deeper understanding. 


A Brief Overview of the Computerized Universal Testing Machine


Looking at the operation of the Universal Testing Machine, it is needless to say that everything is computer-controlled. However, there are other factors of the process to consider and understand here as well. 


Primarily, the equipment works on the transmission of load to the load indicator included in it from the specimen to be tested. The hydraulic process is usually followed in this case, which is ideal for transferring load easily through knife edges and levers. 


This eliminates the chances of the test being influenced by the damage and wear caused to them due to rupture or shock of the test specimen.


There is a ram which is lubricated hydrostatically. The load is applied to it. The pressure created by the primary cylinder is then transferred to the pendulum dynamometer. To be precise, it is transferred to the cylinder of this system located in the control panel. This cylinder of the dynamometer is also designed to lubricate itself during operation. 


If there is any deflection in the pendulum, it signifies that the test specimen is experienced or is under absolute load. If there is any event of an unexpected rupture of the test specimen, the energy is absorbed by an effective return movement of the dynamometer pendulum.


There are different types of tests performed by a computerized UTM Machine, with absolute precision. It includes bending and traverse tests, apart from the customary compression and tensile stress tests.


Role of the Components of Universal Testing Machine

Role of the Components of Universal Testing Machine, Universal Testing Machine, Best Universal Testing Machine in India

The functionality and precision of the UTM largely depend on its design and the different components used in its making. 


It is needless to say, the Best Computerized Universal Testing Machine will provide the best results due to the precision and perfect harmony in the operation of the different components in the machine.


Each component in a UTM plays a significant role, as explained hereunder:


  • The Load Frame – This typically provides the desired support to the machine. Depending on its size and design, the machine can come with either single or dual support.


  • The Load Cell – This is used for the need for a force transducer to measure the necessary load and also for regular calibration due to changes in the quality control system or government rules and regulations.


  • Crosshead – This movable component of the Computerized Universal Testing Machine in India is designed to move up and down, normally at a steady speed. This is why these machines are also called the CRE or Constant Rate of Extension machines. Depending on the design, this speed can be programmed or used to test at constant deformation, and force or to perform cyclical testing.


  • Means of Measurement – During deformation or extension of the test specimen, the response must be measured. For this, an extensometer is usually used to measure the movement of the crosshead.


  • Output or display device – The test result is displayed on a digital display. However, depending on the design it can be displayed on a chart recorder. However, the computerized UTMs typically have a computer interface that helps in data analysis as well as in printing.


In addition, during testing, in some specific instances, some other items may also be required for working. These are special jaws to hold the test specimen, test fixtures, and equipment for making samples of the test specimen.


Also Check:- Electronic Universal Testing Machine? Exploring Types and Benefits


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What Test Can Be Performed on a Universal Testing Machine?


Role of Sensors in Its Functioning


There are different types of sensors used in a Computerized Universal Testing Machine in Delhi, apart from the components mentioned above. All these sensors also play a significant role and ensure the system works efficiently and provides accurate test results. Some of the useful sensors are explained below.


Limit Switch:


This switch is typically an electromechanical device and it operates based on the presence of the object or due to the motion of the parts of the universal testing machine. The actuator of this switch is connected to a set of contacts mechanically.


When this actuator feels that an object has come into contact, it starts operating. Ideally, the contacts work on either breaking or making an electrical link. This eventually helps in determining different aspects of the object, such as:

  • Its absence or presence
  • End travel
  • Positioning and 
  • Passing.


Inductive Non-contact Proximity Sensor:


It is also used to find the position of a metal object. This non-contact electronic sensor works on the principles of Faraday’s law of induction and has an induction loop and electric current creates a magnetic field. This breaks down the current generation when the input electricity stops and drops toward zero from its opening trans.


Variable Frequency Drive:


This drive usually has adjustable speeds and typically helps in controlling the speed of the AC motor, as it does in most electromechanical drive systems. It also helps in controlling the torque by varying the voltage and input frequency of the motor.


Also Read:- What Is the Use of UTM Machine, How to Operate It, and Its Importance




In conclusion, the working principle of the Computerized Universal Testing Machine largely depends on the harmonic operation of its other components. To test, a specimen has to be prepared, mounted, load applied, and deformation is measured according to the set test parameters.