Road Construction and pavement making go hand in hand with civil, rural and urban development. Bitumen is a petroleum product, obtained from crude oil, is an important binder material having good thermoplastic and load bearing properties. It is easy to melt and use and therefore used in the application of pavement and reads. Asphalt is another name used for Bitumen and bitumen extractor. It is commonly mixed with concrete to form asphalt-concrete used in the making of pavements, embankments, and roads.
It enables the laying of long seamless roads without any joints.
The physical properties necessary for road are friction, load bearing capacity, elasticity, and easy formability. The formability has relation with flowability and hence, viscosity.
Bitumen samples are mainly obtained from the bitumen testing equipment with the lower portion of heated tanks, using a sampling tube. Sampling may be carried out at the plant where asphalt is being manufactured, or at the site of construction.
The tests commonly carried out are: Softening point, Viscosity, flash point, carbon-residue, elastic recovery, Breaking value, moisture content, Penetration, tensile, cohesion, ductility, density, hardness, weight,
Marshall Apparatus bitumen test apparatus and is generally used for measurement of resistance to plastic flow. Ageing or fatigue test is also carried out on this material.
Laboratories across the world are actively researching this material to address the issues or problems encountered depending on geographies.